This dissertation paper is comprised of: (a) An analytical and critical approach of the following concepts specific to the psychology of the personality: Self-Esteem Level (SEL), Self-Esteem Stability (SES), Self-Confidence (SC), respect, Self-Respect (SR), ego, narcissism, Frame Of Reference (FOR), ego strength, pride, character, risk-taking, thinking scenario (TS), motivation direction – in the purpose of structuring and differentiating between them – and (b) A research conducted using a psychometric quantitative multidimensional questionnaire, a qualitative inquiry and graphological analysis.
The concepts used in this work come from six areas: Psychology of personality (either for the individual, educational or organizational use), psychotherapy, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), graphological analysis, transactional analysis (specifically the dramatic triangle comprised within the Karpmann formula) and coaching.
The fields to which this research has implications or to which it may provide potential insight are: Psychology of personality, organizational psychology, NLP, graphological analysis, methodological research design, life coaching, transactional analysis, and psychotherapy.
The main findings of this dissertation, argued by both the meta-analysis and research sections:
- Self-Esteem (SE) has two different, separate, independent components, which produce different effects: Self-Esteem Level and Self-Esteem Stability. Although neither the previous nor the current research clearly establishes a definite structure for any of these, the dissertation study correlates in findings to previous approaches and argues based on data the differences proposed as a hypothesis;
- Self-Esteem is a complex, heterogenous psychological meta-type, comprised of several concepts, which cannot be simply explained by two or three dimensions easy to describe. It is a metatype, not a metaprogram (MP);
- Self-Respect and Self-Esteem are categorically separate, individual and independent concepts;
- Self-Esteem differs from Self-Confidence, although it is not clear whether Self-Confidence is a part of Self-Esteem (as some sources and own research data seems to indicate) or it is an independent standing concept, in the manner Self-Respect is to Self-Esteem;
- Narcissism and ego are not dimensions underlining the high Self-Esteem, they are individually different concepts, which rather correlate either with low Self-Esteem or with unstable Self-Esteem, may they manifest as complexes of superiority or as complexes of inferiority;
- Self-Esteem is a concept rather different from ego strength and character;
- Important, fundamental components of Self-Esteem Level are: TS and the degree of goal management;
- Self-Esteem Level and Self-Esteem Stability can be measured graphologically;
- Self-Respect is a concept related to respect, in connection with others. It is not clear yet, from the data available, either from previous or current research, which are the definitive characteristics of the concepts, relations, but based on concept investigating and on data provided by current research, one cannot investigate self-respect without measuring the relationships each individual has with others;
- A fundamental behavioral aspect of Self-Esteem is the response to external stimuli, such as: challenge, failure, conflict, distress, and violence, either verbally or physically, including especially bullying;
- Assertiveness plays a major role in correlation with either Self-Esteem Stability or Self-Respect (at the moment unclear, because obtained data does not correlate with theory and previous research in this aspect);
- The qualitative and quantitative research offer similar findings. The external validity of this study is not solid, but acceptable;
- There are conceptual and research findings that support clear directions for future research.
The questionnaire development started in 2007. The practical research has been applied in 2009-2010 in a population of pupils in the 12th grade in Bucharest high schools (N=123), aged 17-19, taking into consideration the construction of a psychometric scientifically valid instrument for measuring Self-Esteem, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. While the quantitative part has been structured starting from a work of psychotherapists, not researchers, the results have proven to be consistent with similar data findings among previous works.
Key Concepts in this dissertation: acceptance, aggression, assertiveness, away from, challenge-response, character, coaching, communication, competence, conditional, unconditional, depression, development, dignity,distress, dramatic triangle, ego strength, ego, emotional self-control, external, failure, fame, feed-back, frame of reference, future, goal, graphology, gratitude, happiness, health, high self-esteem, high self-respect,independence, inferiority complex, ingratitude, internal, low self-respect,low, self-esteem,metaprogram, meta type, mistake, motivation direction, narcissism, neuro-linguistic programming, NLP, optimism, persecutor, persistence, personal branding, pessimism, portrait, pride, psychotherapy, reaction to uncertainty, respect, risk-taking, saviour, self-acceptance, self-confidence, self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, self-esteem, self-knowledge, self-respect, sense of orientation, sensitiveness, stable, superiority complex, support, teens, thinking scenario, towards, trust, type, unstable, vainglory,victim, virtue, wishful thinking.
Text Copyright © Marcus Victor Grant, 2011-present